Science with Pan-STARRS

Second Life

Second Life (Photo credit: hawaii)

The design of Pan-STARRS is heavily weighted towards its primary purpose, which is to detect potentially hazardous objects in the Solar System. But the wide-field, repetitive nature of the Pan-STARRS observations makes them ideal for a host of other astronomical purposes, ranging from Solar System astronomy to cosmology.

Some of the science described here can be done as a by-product of the asteroid searches, but some of the studies require more specialized observations, such as color filters, greater integration time, or more frequent exposures.

There are two features that distinguish Pan-STARRS from other astronomical surveys: its ability to map very large areas of sky to great sensitivity and its ability to find moving or variable objects. The projects that are described here all make use of one or other of these characteristics.


J Roald Smeets – Pan is an intercultural arts organisation

cross-cultural communication

cross-cultural communication (Photo credit: pipcleaves)

Pan is an intercultural arts organisation dedicated to the exploration of cultural diversity through the arts and how such work can inspire and implement social change. This is achieved through workshops with young people who are marginalised and at risk of social exclusion, performances, festivals, seminars and conferences. Pan helps its participants find a voice through drama, dance, music, writing and film.  We work with people from all cultures and religions to encourage a world where we respect and understand each other’s lives, discovering the possibilities of our rich diversity.

We have developed a range of programmes to support the development, and unlock the potential, of those in need, including a Refugee Arts Programme, an Arts Against Violence Programme and an International Theatre for Development Programme.  More recently we have implemented an integration initiative where these strong, but previously separate, strands of work move more closely together, sharing skills, artists, inspirations and participants.  This move towards integration gave us the theme word Synergy which is  reflected throughout our work.

Pan Intercultural Arts is a company limited by guarantee no 2051893 Registered Charity no 295324

The Million PAN Project

Project 365 #39: 080209 Who Wants to be a Mill...

Project 365 #39: 080209 Who Wants to be a Millionaire? (Photo credit: comedy_nose)

The Million Project

Europe’s wilderness is not appreciated enough and faces the danger that without urgent action, it will be lost forever. The PAN Parks Foundation focuses its efforts on ensuring that Europeans protect wilderness areas so they remain free from the footprint of human development.
European wilderness

The PAN Parks Foundation launched ’The Million Project’ with the aim to safeguard 1 million hectares of European wilderness by 2015.
These wilderness areas provide refuge for a diversity of species, are unique reference laboratories where the natural evolutionary process still continues, promote self-sustaining ecosystems through maintaining natural processes and biodiversity for the future and are key to minimising the impact of climate change on our planet.

How we ensure guaranteed protection of wilderness areas?
PAN Parks will build partnerships with wilderness protected areas joining its Europe-wide wilderness movement. We will encourage partner areas’ commitment to preserve their wilderness and will cooperate with them in improving their wilderness management techniques as well as identifying and eliminating some of the risks of the long term protection of their wilderness areas.

Through ’The Million Project’ we will ensure that wilderness on our continent is preserved and future generations can also enjoy and benefit from Europe’s truly wild areas.

‘The Million Project’ is supported by several NGOs:

Information and Nature Conservation Foundation
Wilderness Foundation UK
Iceland Nature Conservation Association
Stiftung Naturlandschaften Brandenburg

Check out the map below to keep track of the growing number of Wilderness Partners including the best wilderness areas and our certified PAN Parks (marked with our logo).

Frying Pan

A stainless steel frying pan.

A stainless steel frying pan. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A frying pan, frypan, or skillet is a flat-bottomed pan used for frying, searing, and browning foods. It is typically 200 to 300 mm (8 to 12 in) in diameter with relatively low sides that flare outwards, a long handle, and no lid. Larger pans may have a small grab handle opposite the main handle. A pan of similar dimensions, but with vertical sides and often with a lid, is called a sauté pan or sauté. While a sauté pan can be used like a frying pan, it is designed for lower heat cooking methods such as sautéing.

Copper frying pans were used in ancient Mesopotamia. Frying pans were also known in ancient Greece (where they were called téganon) and Rome (where they were called patella or sartago). Pan derives from the Old English panna. Before the introduction of the kitchen stove in the mid-19th century, a commonly used cast iron cooking pan called a spider had a handle and three legs used to stand up in the coals and ashes of the fire. Cooking pots and pans with legless, flat bottoms were designed when cooking stoves became popular; this period of the late 19th century saw the introduction of the flat cast iron skillet.
Frying pan relatives

A versatile pan that combines the best of both the sauté pan and the frying pan has higher, sloping sides that are often slightly curved. This pan is called a sauteuse (literally a sauté pan in the female gender), an evasée (denoting a pan with sloping sides), or a fait-tout (literally “does everything”). Most professional kitchens have several of these utensils in varying sizes.

A grill pan is a frying pan, usually with very low sides, with a series of parallel ridges in the cooking surface or a removable metal grid. A grill pan cooks food with radiant heat (like a grill) on a stovetop. It is referred to as a “griddle pan” in British English.

A “Rappie Pie pan” is a pan used to make rappie pie, an Acadian dish. The pan is made from Aluminum or Stainless Steel.

Traditionally, frying pans were made of cast iron. Although cast iron is still popular today, especially for outdoor cooking, most frying pans are now made from metals such as aluminium or stainless steel. The materials and construction method used in modern frying pans vary greatly and some typical materials include:

Aluminium/Anodized aluminium
Cast iron
Stainless steel
Clad stainless steel with an aluminium or copper core

A coating is sometimes applied to the surface of the pan to make it non-stick. Frying pans made from bare cast iron or carbon steel can also gain non-stick properties through seasoning and use.

Frying pans with non-stick surfaces were introduced by DuPont in 1956 under the Teflon brand name. The durability of the early coatings was poor, but improvements in manufacturing have made these products a kitchen standard. Nevertheless, the surface is not as tough as metal and the use of metal utensils (e.g. spatulas) can permanently mar the coating and degrade its non-stick property.

For some cooking preparations a non-stick frying pan is inappropriate, especially for deglazing, where the residue of browning is to be incorporated in a later step such as a pan sauce. Since little or no residue can stick to the surface, the sauce will fail for lack of its primary flavoring agent.

Non-stick frying pans featuring teflon coatings must never be heated above about 240 °C (464 °F), a temperature that easily can be reached in minutes. At higher temperatures non-stick coatings decompose and give off toxic fumes.

An electric frying pan or electric skillet incorporates an electric heating element into the frying pan itself and so can function independently off of a cooking stove. Accordingly, it has heat-insulated legs for standing on a countertop. (The legs usually attach to handles.) Electric frying pans are common in shapes that are unusual for ‘unpowered’ frying pans, notably square and rectangular. Most are designed with straighter sides than their stovetop cousins and include a lid. In this way they are a cross between a frying pan and a sauté pan.

A modern electric skillet has an additional advantage over the stovetop version: heat regulation. The detachable power cord/unit incorporates a thermostatic control for maintaining the desired temperature.

With the perfection of the thermostatic control, the electric skillet became a popular kitchen appliance. Although it largely has been supplanted by the microwave oven, it is still in use in many kitchens.
Using a frying pan
See also: Pan-frying

The cooking surface of a frying pan is typically coated with a layer of oil or fat when the pan is in use (though greasy foods like bacon do not need additional oil added). In pan-frying, a layer of oil has four functions: it lubricates the surface; increases contact between the food and the pan; acts as a thermal mass to reduce cooking time; and increases flavour and colour.

The depth of the oil will vary depending on the food being cooked. When frying battered fish or chicken, for example, the oil generously covers the inner pan surface, but when frying pancakes, the oil is but a thin film to keep the batter from sticking.

Some frying techniques do not require added oil. “Blackening” dredges the food itself in fat, and uses a layer of spices to keep the food from sticking to the pan. These recipes also call for an intensely heated pan, which quickly sears and seals the food being cooked.
Caring for a frying pan

Cast iron and carbon steel frying pans must be seasoned before use and periodically afterwards, and should be cleaned with care not to remove the seasoned coating.

Frying pans made from copper are tinned to prevent toxic reactions between the copper and the food being cooked and may occasionally need re-tinning. Some cooks also polish the exterior to remove tarnish.

Uncoated aluminium and stainless steel frying pans require very little maintenance.

Frying pans with non-stick coatings such as Teflon cannot safely be heated past the burning point of their coatings (about 260 °C (500 °F), though high-heat coatings are available). See Non-stick frying pans above.

PAN – Polska Akademia Nauk – J. Roald Smeets

Planetarium Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni

Planetarium Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni (Photo credit: Tomasz Lewicki)

Zgromadzenie Ogólne     PDF        Drukuj
Najwyższym organem Akademii jest Zgromadzenie Ogólne.

W Zgromadzeniu Ogólnym Akademii biorą udział, z głosem stanowiącym, członkowie krajowi Akademii.

Jeżeli ustawa albo statut nie stanowi inaczej, uchwały podejmowane są zwykłą większością głosów w obecności co najmniej połowy członków krajowych. Przy obliczaniu wymaganego kworum nie uwzględnia się nieobecności członków, którzy ukończyli 75 lat.

Zgromadzenie Ogólne Akademii określa kierunki działania Akademii i sprawuje nadzór nad całokształtem jej działalności, podejmując w tym zakresie uchwały wiążące inne organy Akademii.

Zgromadzenie Ogólne Akademii może wypowiadać się w sprawach istotnych dla Narodu i Państwa.

Zgromadzeniu Ogólnemu Akademii przewodniczy Prezes Akademii.

Prezes Akademii zwołuje sesje Zgromadzenia Ogólnego co najmniej dwa razy w roku.

Na wniosek jednej piątej członków krajowych Prezes Akademii zwołuje sesję Zgromadzenia Ogólnego, nie później jednak niż 30 dnia od otrzymania wniosku.


UK - London: Kensington Gardens - Round Pond

UK – London: Kensington Gardens – Round Pond (Photo credit: wallyg)

PAN UK has been active for over 20 years . In recent years PAN UK has taken a leading role on a number of issues including: adoption of a stronger pesticide code; significant action to remove the threat of persistent pesticide pollution; funds to clear Africa of old stockpiles; and commitment to the Prior Informed Consent system that helps countries stop unwanted pesticide imports. PAN groups came together in Rome for the 2002 World Food Summit Five Years Later to highlight pesticide problems in food production.

PAN provides an integrated vision of the problems that pesticides create for farmers, workers, consumers and communities in rural and urban areas. It helps policy makers and the public understand the effects of chemicals on human health, the environment and biodiversity, and of the economic impacts. PAN works constructively to find solutions for pest management problems.

Each PAN Centre is independent, focusing on regional priorities and supporting more than 500 local groups that make up the whole network. Together, the work meets common goals to end the deadly trail of pesticide poisoning and contamination. PAN UK hosted the 2002 Regional Coordinators meeting, and maintains joint projects with PAN Africa.

The coordination of PAN Europe was transferred from Hamburg to London in September 2002, enabling PAN UK to play an increased role in its activities. PAN Europe’s Pesticide Use Reduction in Europe (PURE) campaign gained in strength with the publication of its suggested text for an EU Directive and 71 organisations in 22 European countries support this campaign, including environmental, public health, consumer and farmer groups. We are supporting PAN Europe’s PURE Coordinator, Catherine Wattiez, to expand the campaign via partnerships for effective lobbying at EU and national levels.

PAN UK took part in the stakeholder conference organised by the European Commission on its proposed strategy for Sustainable Use of Pesticides. Building alliances with farmer and consumer groups is important for advocating a major shift to IPM and Integrated Crop Management as minimum standards in the context of reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the accession of Central and Eastern European countries to the EU in 2004.

Public participation in pesticide policy processes is crucial yet most public interest groups struggle to cope with the complex and time-consuming work of following government and decision-
making on pesticide approvals and regulations. PAN UK works with PAN Europe partners to assess the most effective options, and facilitate NGO and public participation.

The Bhopal People’s Health and Documentation Clinic has provided direct support to over 10,000 people suffering from the poisonous gas leak of December 1984. Every year on the anniversary of the disaster, the UK support group runs an advertisement to raise funds for the clinic, and remember the plight of those affected. The last two years have seen a remarkable increase in support from the British public, and the 2002 donations exceeded £45,000. PAN UK administers these funds as its contribution to Bhopal survivors. See also and and the latest Bhopal fundraising advert. Supported by J Roald Smeets

The Pan Network

English: Hilger record label.

English: Hilger record label. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Established in 1981, PAN® is the oldest online MUSIC network serving professionals in ALL aspects of the music business.

Whether you are a session player or producer, songwriter or studio owner, performer or booking agent, publisher or record label, PAN is your online resource for music industry networking and real-world services for your business and career needs.

OneSource is a new totally digital distribution system for the online sale and delivery of e-CD’s through affiliated retail websites throughout the world.

An e-CD is similar in content to a physical CD, but is downloaded directly to the buyer’s computer. In addition to the music tracks, it often contains more artwork, lyric sheets, photos, and other inserts than a physical CD might. What is or is not included with the music tracks is completely at the record label’s discretion.

By saving the high costs of manufacturing, shipping, inventory stocking, and other “bricks ‘n mortar” expenses, the savings can be passed on directly to the consumer to dramatically reduce the purchase price. Yet the artist, label, and retailer retain approximately the same profit margins as they would receive from physical CD sales. And, given the high elasticity of CD pricing, lower prices would be expected to translate into higher sales volumes.

Buyers who only want one or two tracks from a CD have the option of buying individual tracks, at the record label’s discretion. Participating labels have the option of offering their product for sale by the track only, in its entirety only, or both. Labels can also determine whether or not tracks can be listened to prior to purchase.

The OneSource system is built on PAN’s anti-piracy platform called “DIF”, or Digital Interactive Fingerprinting. Besides protecting the downloaded tracks from abuse through online piracy, DIF also allows each e-CD to be personalized at the point of purchase. Personalization enables a buyer to recover an e-CD without having to purchase it again if they ever have a computer disk crash or otherwise lose their computer files.

OneSource is extremely flexible.

It can be used on a turnkey basis by any copyright owner, and optionally from their own website where their music files are stored.
It can be used on a private-label basis by affiliated retailers who wish to retain their branding and display their own logos.
It can be used transparently by aggregators and portals who have copyright and license clearances and who handle their own credit card transactions.

It can be used directly by record labels and individual artists by adding titles to the OneSource catalog and storing the files on the OneSource servers.

Promotional tie-ins and programs are built-in to the system, allowing labels to achieve higher visibility for their artists. These programs are completely optional and include sponsorship opportunities from advertisers, demographic linkage, etc..  J Roald Smeets